Expanding our Data in Apple Maps

We are excited to provide Apple with access to and tighter integration with our Global Places data.

Places data changes constantly as new businesses open, old businesses close, or businesses change locations or change aspects of themselves. Our data stack is designed to distill down billions of pieces of information from millions of different sources into a clean, comprehensive, up to date database of places in 50 countries. It incorporates new inputs in real-time and can quickly rebuild the entire data set as we improve the data stack itself, giving us an incredible amount of flexibility and agility in building data. The sophistication of our data stack and resulting flexibility and agility improves our ability to provide better and more timely data to Apple Maps.

Furthermore, a core tenet of Factual is our neutrality – we do not build consumer facing products, so we do not compete with our app partners. Our business is enabling others to build amazing applications with data and we look forward to continuing to provide our entire data set to Apple Maps.

Here’s to better data for all.

–Bill Michels, SVP of Product and Partnerships

Factual and Facebook Partner to Improve Location Data Across Facebook

We are thrilled to announce our partnership with Facebook. Facebook will be using our Global Places data, including Restaurants and Hotels extended attributes, in order to help enrich and improve the quality of Facebook’s US places data. This data will be used across many features in Facebook including Facebook Business Pages, places search, Check Ins, and Place Tips.

We are incredibly proud to have our data help shape the mobile experience for the hundreds of millions of Facebook mobile users here in the United States.

Mobile Advertising Watch Podcast: Gil Elbaz on the Power of Location Data for Effective Mobile Advertising

Note: This was originally posted on Mobile Advertising Watch on 7/23/2015, available here.

In an interview with Mobile Advertising Watch, Factual CEO Gil Elbaz discusses the increasingly important purpose served by data and location technology in the efforts spearheaded by advertisers and developers alike. He touches on key issues including: optimizing use of mobile data, consumer privacy, and the future of location technology.

Strictly Tagged Clojure

This summer I’ve been an intern at Factual, and this is an experience report from the semiannual internal hackathon where Alan ‘amalloy’ Malloy and I experimented with using Alexander Yakushev’s Skummet fork of Clojure to emit lean(er) bytecode.

Some Motivation
One of Clojure’s primary use cases is as a more palatable tool with which to interact with the rich Java ecosystem and existing Java libraries. Because of its facilities for such inter-operation, Clojure is even sometimes used to write performance sensitive code which would otherwise be written in Java. However there are limitations to the success with which this may be done.

While JVM byte code is statically typed, Clojure is a dynamically checked language which makes pervasive use of the Object type to delay type checking. To this end, Clojure will use JVM Object reflection to resolve instance fields and methods when performing interoperation. While correct for unknown types, because reflective access is slow compared to direct access for known types, it has long been possible to write type hints which advise Clojure about the runtime JVM type of a value and enable Clojure to use direct access and direct method invocation rather than reflective access.

However these hints are not types in the sense of a static type being a contract on the domain of values; they are merely hints for reflection elimination and place no contract on the domain of a hinted value.

This hinting behavior for reflection elimination comes at the cost of emitting checkcast instructions. As the JVM is statically typed, one cannot simply swear that a value is of a type, a checking cast must be used. Clojure, when emitting non-reflective method calls and field accesses, does not statically know (and makes no attempt to prove) that the value or expression in play is in fact of the type which you may have tagged it. All local variables and function parameters which are not JVM primitives are stored as Objects and so must be checkcasted to the desired type on every use.

So are we stuck trading slow reflective access for checkcast instructions (which are faster to be sure but cause method bloat when doing lots of interop on previously checked values)? Of course not! While Clojure does not currently have support for real contractual types, we can sure add it!

Now, clearly since Clojure does not currently have strict local types, we can’t just make tags strict. TEMJVM actually makes that mistake, and as a result cannot compile clojure/core because among others, clojure.core/ns-publics makes use of a type hint which while safe for nonstrict type tags is not correct in the context of strict tags. This has to be an additive, opt-in change.

So, what Alan and I did was create new special fn metadata flag ^:strict. If a fn body being compiled has the ^:strict tag, then and only then are are type tags treated as a contract rather than being advisory. This is a strictly additive change because stock Clojure will ignore the metadata and emit less efficient but still correct code.

So as an example, let’s consider the following fn:

(defn sum ^long [^Iterable xs]
  (let [iter (.iterator xs)]
    (loop [tot (long 0)]
      (if (.hasNext iter)
        (recur (+ tot (long (.next iter))))

Eliding a bunch of implementation details for brevity, this fn compiles on stock Clojure 1.7 to the following JVM bytecodes:

public final long invokePrim(java.lang.Object xs);
   0  aload_1 [xs]
   1  aconst_null
   2  astore_1 [xs]
   3  checkcast java.lang.Iterable [47]
   6  invokeinterface java.lang.Iterable.iterator() : java.util.Iterator [51] [nargs: 1]
  11  astore_2 [iter]
  12  lconst_0
  13  nop
  14  lstore_3 [tot]
  15  aload_2 [iter]
  16  checkcast java.util.Iterator [53]
  19  invokeinterface java.util.Iterator.hasNext() : boolean [57] [nargs: 1]
  24  ifeq 51
  27  lload_3 [tot]
  28  aload_2 [iter]
  29  checkcast java.util.Iterator [53]
  32  invokeinterface java.util.Iterator.next() : java.lang.Object [61] [nargs: 1]
  37  invokestatic clojure.lang.RT.longCast(java.lang.Object) : long [64]
  40  invokestatic clojure.lang.Numbers.add(long, long) : long [70]
  43  lstore_3 [tot]
  44  goto 15
  47  goto 52
  50  pop
  51  lload_3
  52  lreturn
    Local variable table:
      [pc: 15, pc: 52] local: tot index: 3 type: long
      [pc: 12, pc: 52] local: iter index: 2 type: java.lang.Object
      [pc: 0, pc: 52] local: this index: 0 type: java.lang.Object
      [pc: 0, pc: 52] local: xs index: 1 type: java.lang.Object

// Method descriptor #77 (Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/lang/Object;
// Stack: 5, Locals: 2
public java.lang.Object invoke(java.lang.Object arg0);
   0  aload_0 [this]
   1  aload_1 [arg0]
   2  invokeinterface clojure.lang.IFn$OL.invokePrim(java.lang.Object) : long [79] [nargs: 2]
   7  new java.lang.Long [30]
  10  dup_x2
  11  dup_x2
  12  pop
  13  invokespecial java.lang.Long(long) [82]
  16  areturn

So here we have two methods. The first one, the invokePrim, takes an Object and returns a primitive long since we long hinted our function. The invoke method is a wrapper around the invokePrim method which provides for “boxing” (wrapping in an Object) the primitive result of calling invokePrim. This allows our fn to be used by code which wants and can use a long, and code which doesn’t know/care and just wants an Object back like a normal fn would return.

So lets dig into the invokePrim method.

  1. Load xs off the arguments stack. It’s just typed Object because that’s the parameter type.
  2. Load the constant nil.
  3. Store the nil to the local named xs, thus clearing it. Note that in the locals table, xs has the type Object. This means that when we get xs from the local, we have to checkcast it again because we’ve lost type information by storing and loading it.
  4. checkcast the xs we loaded to Iterable since we don’t really know what it is.
  5. invokeinterface of the .iterator method to get an Iterator from our now guaranteed Iterable.
  6. Store our Iterable into the iter local (discarding type information as above).
  7. Load the constant 0 from the class constant pool.
  8. Store the tot local (primitive typed).
  9. Load our iter.
  10. checkcast because in storing it we forgot that it’s an Iterator.
  11. invokeinterface to see if there are elements left, producing a primitive boolean.
  12. Branch on the boolean going to 21 (in this list) if false.
  13. Load tot from the local.
  14. Load iter from the local.
  15. checkcast that iter is still Iterator.
  16. invokeinterface to get the next value from the iterator, producing an Object.
  17. invokestatic to call the static clojure.lang.RT method for converting Objects to primitive longs.
  18. invokestatic to add the two primitive longs on the stack.
  19. Store the new value of tot.
  20. Loop back to 10.
  21. Clear the stack.
  22. Load tot.
  23. return.

So with the exception of the first checkcast to make sure that the Object we got as an argument that should be Iterable is in fact an instance of Iterable, the checkcasts after load are all provably uncalled for. The static types of these values is known because their Java signatures are known, and the only reason that we have to emit all these checks is that the Compiler throws that information away by storing these values in untyped (Object) locals.

The Hack

Every Expr in clojure.lang.Compiler already knows (or can state) its type either as tagged or inferred, and whether it has such a tag. However, these stated Java classes are lies! A function invocation (IFn.invoke call site) is statically typed to return Object (unless it’s a primitive call site, but we know that as well) no matter what the tag on the IFn being invoked may say. For example clojure.core/str is tagged ^String and does indeed return a String, however after invoking the appropriate IFn the JVM doesn’t know that there’s a String on the stack because the IFn interface discards that type information. It just knows it has an Object. The fix is that we add an Expr.needsCast method and implement it for every instance of Expr in Compiler.java. So now when in strict mode, we know that unless Expr.needsCast returns true, the value on the stack after Expr.emit absolutely is of type Expr.getJavaClass. Otherwise we cannot avoid the checkcast.

We also have to change the behavior of locals so that we can emit locals with types other than Object. By typing locals, we preserve their type information as tagged or inferred across loads and stores. This allows the Expr representing a local use to report that it only needs a cast when the usage of the local doesn’t have the same tag as the type of the binding and we cannot statically show no cast is required.

With these changes, our modified Compiler.java can indeed produce and use strictly typed locals. So lets add our annotation…

(defn ^:strict sum ^long [^Iterable xs]
 (let [iter (.iterator xs)]
   (loop [tot (long 0)]
     (if (.hasNext iter)
       (recur (+ tot (long (.next iter))))

And generate bytecode on our modified version of Skummet 1.7-RC1-r4 (again abbreviated).

public final long invokePrim(java.lang.Object);
    0: aload_1
    1: aconst_null
    2: astore_1
    3: checkcast     #30                 // class java/lang/Iterable
    6: invokeinterface #34,  1           // InterfaceMethod java/lang/Iterable.iterator:()Ljava/util/Iterator;
   11: astore_2
   12: lconst_0
   13: nop
   14: lstore_3
   15: aload_2
   16: invokeinterface #40,  1           // InterfaceMethod java/util/Iterator.hasNext:()Z
   21: ifeq          43
   24: lload_3
   25: aload_2
   26: invokeinterface #44,  1           // InterfaceMethod java/util/Iterator.next:()Ljava/lang/Object;
   31: invokestatic  #49                 // Method clojure/lang/RT.longCast:(Ljava/lang/Object;)J
   34: ladd
   35: lstore_3
   36: goto          15
   39: goto          44
   42: pop
   43: lload_3
   44: lreturn
   Start  Length  Slot  Name   Signature
      15      29     3   tot   J
      12      32     2  iter   Ljava/util/Iterator;
       0      44     0  this   Ljava/lang/Object;
       0      44     1    xs   Ljava/lang/Object;

public java.lang.Object invoke(java.lang.Object);
    0: aload_0
    1: aload_1
    2: invokeinterface #59,  2           // InterfaceMethod clojure/lang/IFn$OL.invokePrim:(Ljava/lang/Object;)J
    7: new           #13                 // class java/lang/Long
   10: dup_x2
   11: dup_x2
   12: pop
   13: invokespecial #62                 // Method java/lang/Long."":(J)V
   16: areturn

The win compared to the original bytecode should be obvious. Sure enough in the invokeStatic method we only emit the one checkcast we absolutely have to have because the xs argument could really be anything. The tot and iter locals are both statically typed, and so we can just load them and invoke the appropriate interfaces directly.

In some simple benchmarks, this optimization on this fn translates to a 5%-10% performance improvement which isn’t too impressive. However other fns like clojure.core/str in our testing were able to get up to 20% performance improvements from strict locals.


This is the product of a two day hack. While Alan and I have been able to get it to work and emit working code, honestly this isn’t something we’re comfortable taking to production yet. Some clear wins such as being able to emit typed fn arguments by popping arguments, checking them and then putting them in typed local bindings for use and being able to take advantage of types on closed over locals remain on the table.

What Didn’t (Seem to) Work

While Alan debugged Compiler.java and picked off some types related wins we hadn’t gotten yet, I worked on adding more inlining behavior to clojure.core. Much of core, especially the lexically early fns are just thin wrappers around interop on clojure.lang.RT, which does have reasonable interface types on most of its methods.

The hope was that with the typed locals work, preserving more type information across calls to the Clojure standard library and inlining the Clojure standard library where possible to interop calls with clearly inferable types, and we would be able to produce demonstrably faster code.

While in theory this should at least break even and probably even be a win, we haven’t managed to benchmark it well and show a clear win from the aggressive inlining work. In fact, the really interesting case of possibly aggressive inlining being an into which is able to use a typed, static Transient loop is impossible because into is implemented in terms of reduce, which takes the reducing fn as a value and then dispatches via clojure.lang.IReduce in order to get fast iteration over chunked seq. However, we can’t statically inline a call site through being taken as a value so that’s the end of the line for that idea.

Next Steps

After about a week of polishing, bugfixing and squashing, we’re happy to say that this behavior has been upstreamed into Skummet. While we expect that the patches we have developed will never be included into Clojure as-is if only due to high impact, we hope to see this behavior or something like it enter the mainline in a future version of Clojure.

-Reid McKenzie, Software Engineering Intern

Drake 1.0.1: You Can Use It Now

We’re pleased to announce the release of Drake version 1.0.1. This release is a quick follow-up to the recently released Drake 1.0.0.

The 1.x version of Drake provides easy installation, including a Homebrew recipe for Mac users.

We’ve also included a commemorative logo upgrade, check it out!

Many thanks to @amalloy for his ownership, guidance, and leadership with Drake’s core codebase since he started at Factual.

Many thanks to @mavericklou for taking ownership of specific bugs & features and owning release management. Mav notably added a shiny new install/upgrade script, which makes it dead simple for Linux users to install and upgrade Drake. Mav also took over the Homebrew recipe for Drake and has been keeping it up-to-date.

Thanks to @chen-factual for recently contributing an honest-to-goodness missing feature to Drake, allowing us to better justify this 1.0.1 release. It’s not too hard to ask for a feature, but it takes brave and good people like Chen to actually release a feature.

And as always: A heartfelt thanks to everyone in the community who has contributed bug reports, feature requests, and most awesomely, code contributions and pull requests!

Some background on Drake and project versioning:

Drake (Factual’s data processing workflow tool) was first open sourced by us on January, 24, 2013. It was versioned 0.1.0 at that time. Over time we upgraded Drake and moderately increased the version tag. Two years in we considered Drake “barely famous” and found ourselves at version 0.1.6.

There’s a kind of unwritten rule of humility in the Clojure community around open sourced library versioning. Authors are reluctant to presume too much. As an example, the Leiningen build tool defaults a new project’s version to 0.1.0, but then some authors change that to 0.0.1 as a first step on a new project. Because, you know… let’s not be presumptuous.

Well, I was bragging to Alan about a Drake release, which I was calling 0.2.0. Alan rolled his eyes. He was like, “Considering the conventions put forth by Semantic Versioning, and considering that Drake has been in production at this company as well as other companies for years now, why not call it version 1 already?” I pushed back a bit, by surveying two existing open source Clojure projects I know of:

  1. Aleph, Zach Tellman’s notorious asynchronous library for Clojure, is currently versioned 0.4.x. Keep in mind it’s been in production at Factual and other serious minded shops for years now. I asked Zach when he plans to cut a 1.0.0 and his reply started, “Each minor release has been effectively a ground-up rewrite…”.
  2. Riemann, Kyle Kingsbury’s network event stream processing system written in Clojure, also enjoys prime time adoption in various production environments. And yet it’s versioned 0.2.x. I asked Kyle if he plans to cut a 1.0.0:

    Kyle: Naw, I don’t think it’s 1.0 material yet. :-)
    me: What would it take to justify a 1.0 ??
    Kyle: API stability, a bunch of protocol enhancements, dropping a bunch of deprecated stuff, performance stuff, bunch of bugfixes, disk persistence, maybe determinism & a better stream compiler…
    me: when will the madness end !?
    Kyle: Probably never? Or, like, we could say that a tool may be sufficiently stable for a job while not being finished yet. :-/

Alan was copied on all these emails. He wasn’t convinced, and questioned my motives. “Chesterton’s Fence1!” was my last defense, but it didn’t stand (so to speak). In the end, Alan and Mav outvoted me 2-to-1 for Drake 1.0.0. Plus Artem (Drake’s original designer) was enthusiastic. So we presumptuously bumped Drake’s version to 1.0.0 and cut a release.

Of course I made sure to warn my colleagues: “You should most certainly not use this version of Drake! As a general rule, do not use a version x.0.0 of any product. Sorry, you’ll need to wait for Drake 1.0.1 or whatever…”.

As of today, we’re closing that loop. Drake 1.0.1 has been released, a.k.a. “Drake 1”. Please consider it officially usable and ready for production… if that’s not too presumptuous of us. We hope you like it.

Go make some great workflows!

Aaron Crow
Factual engineer, Drake contributor

1. Thanks to Alan for teaching us about Chesterton’s Fence(s).